Psychiatry Investig Search


Psychiatry Investig > Volume 15(2); 2018 > Article
Psychiatry Investigation 2018;15(2):178-185.
DOI:    Published online October 12, 2017.
Characteristics of Residual Symptoms in Korean Patients with Major Depressive Disorder: A Validation Study for the Korean Version of Depression Residual Symptom Scale
Sol A Park1, Sang Won Jeon2, Ho-Kyoung Yoon1, Seo Young Yoon3, Cheolmin Shin1, Young-Hoon Ko1
1Department of Psychiatry, Korea University College of Medicine, Ansan Hospital, Ansan, Republic of Korea
2Department of Psychiatry, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea
3Department of Psychiatry, Catholic University of Daegu School of Medicine, Daegu, Republic of Korea
Correspondence  Young-Hoon Ko ,Tel: +82-31-412-5140, Fax: +82-31-412-5144, Email:
Received: May 6, 2017   Revised: June 23, 2017   Accepted: July 13, 2017   Published online: October 12, 2017
Residual symptoms of depression are related to more severe and chronic course of functional impairment with higher risk of relapse. The objective of this study was to validate, and determine psychometric properties of the Korean version of Depression Residual Symptom Scale (KDRSS).
A total of 203 outpatients with recent episode of major depression based on DSM-IV criteria were enrolled in this study. They had been treated with antidepressants and assessed by KDRSS, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-24 (HDRS-24), and Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MARDS). The validity and reliability of KDRSS were assessed, including internal consistency reliability, concurrent validity, temporal stability, factorial validity, and discriminative validity.
Internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha=0.961), concurrent validity (MADRS: r=0.731, p<0.01, HDRS-24: r=0.663, p<0.01), and temporal stability (r=0.726, p<0.01) of KDRSS were all excellent. KDRSS showed good discriminative validity based on MARDS. KDRSS consisted of one-factor structure accounting for 63.8% of total variance. All subjects except two in full remission group had one or more residual symptoms. In 7 subscales of KDRSS consisting of similar items respectively, ‘lack of energy’ was the most commonly reported, followed by ‘increased emotionalism’ in this group.
KDRSS is a useful and sensitive instrument for measuring residual depressive symptoms. Since some depressive symptoms including ‘lack of energy’ and ‘increased emotionalism’ in patients with full remission might be persistent during psychiatric intervention, these symptoms need to be focused on in clinical practice.
Keywords: Major depressive disorder, Remission, Depression residual symptom scale


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