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Psychiatry Investig > Volume 20(9); 2023 > Article
Psychiatry Investigation 2023;20(9):808-817.
DOI:    Published online September 19, 2023.
The Effect of Psychological Factors on COVID-19 Vaccination Side Effects: A Cross-Sectional Survey in South Korea
Eun Kim  , Hee Jin Kim  , Doug Hyun Han 
Department of Psychiatry, Chung-Ang University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea
Correspondence: Doug Hyun Han ,Tel: +82-2-6299-3132, Fax: +82-2-6298-1508, Email:
Received: April 13, 2023   Revised: June 4, 2023   Accepted: June 18, 2023   Published online: September 19, 2023
Side effects from the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) vaccine, such as pain, headache, nausea, and fatigue, have caused vaccine hesitancy. Research on the effects of psychological factors on COVID-19 vaccine side effects is insufficient. This study aims to investigate the effect of psychological factors on COVID-19 vaccination side effects.
We recruited a total of 226 individuals registered for the COVID-19 vaccine in Seoul, South Korea, for this study. Participants completed a pre-vaccination questionnaire, including the 5C antecedents of vaccination, and a survey of psychological factors (Patient Health Questionnaire–9 [PHQ-9], Generalized Anxiety Disorder–7, Somatic symptom amplification scale [SSAS], and Illness Attitude Scale [IAS]). After vaccination, participants completed an online questionnaire regarding vaccine side effects at 20 minutes, three days, and seven days after vaccination. We added a discrete set of hierarchical variables with vaccine side effects as the dependent variable to the hierarchical regression analysis: demographics for Model 1, 5C antecedents of vaccination for Model 2, and psychological factors for Model 3.
Our results indicated that the risk factors for side effects 20 minutes after vaccination were young age, high PHQ, and SSAS scores. Risk factors for side effects three days after vaccination were young age, high constraints, and calculation, and the risk factor for side effects at seven days was a high IAS score.
Our study confirmed that there is a significant relationship between psychological factors and COVID-19 vaccine side effects in chronological order. Psychosocial factors should be examined when assessing side-effect reactions to the COVID-19 vaccine.
Key words   COVID-19; Depression; Illness anxiety; Psychological factors; Somatic symptoms; Vaccination


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