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Psychiatry Investig > Volume 20(9); 2023 > Article
Psychiatry Investigation 2023;20(9):880-887.
DOI:    Published online September 19, 2023.
Sleep Reactivity and Sleep Efforts in Shift Workers
Yunjee Hwang1  , Hyeyeon Jang2  , Jooyoung Lee2  , Sehyun Jeon2  , Jichul Kim2  , Somi Lee2  , Seog Ju Kim2 
1Department of Brain and Cognitive Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
2Department of Psychiatry, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea
Correspondence: Seog Ju Kim ,Tel: +82-2-3410-3583, Fax: +82-2-3410-0050, Email:
Received: March 29, 2023   Revised: June 20, 2023   Accepted: July 9, 2023   Published online: September 19, 2023
*Yunjee Hwang and Hyeyeon Jang contributed equally to this study as co-first authors.
The current study aimed to investigate the differences in sleep reactivity and sleep effort differs among late night shift workers (LSWs) and non-late night shift workers (non-LSWs), and non-shift workers (non-SWs).
In total, 6,023 participants (1,613 non-SWs, 3,339 LSWs, and 1,071 non-LSWs) were recruited. Non-SWs was defined as those who works at fixed schedules during standard daylight. LSWs was defined as who work late night hours (10 PM–6 AM), while non-LSWs was SWs who did not work during late night. All completed the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test (FIRST), the Glasgow Sleep Effort Scale (GSES), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), and the short-term Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) through online survey.
LSWs and non-LSWs reported higher FIRST, GSES scores than non-SWs. In addition, LSWs reported higher FIRST, GSES scores than non-LSWs. FIRST scores were correlated with CES-D, PSQI, ISI, and ESS for LSWs, non-LSWs, and non-SWs alike. GSES scores were also correlated with CES-D, PSQI, ISI, and ESS for LSWs, non-LSWs, and non-SWs alike.
SWs showed higher sleep reactivity and sleep effort than non-SWs. LSWs had higher sleep reactivity and sleep effort than non-LSWs, and these variables are associated with insomnia, daytime sleepiness, and depressive symptoms. Our findings suggests that late night schedule, may increase sleep reactivity and sleep effort, which are associated with sleep and mood disturbances.
Key words   Shift work; Sleep reactivity; Sleep effort; Sleep disturbance
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