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Psychiatry Investigation 2006;3(1):46-54.
Conceptualization of Jeong and Dynamics of Hwabyung
Christopher K. Chung, MD; and Samson J. Cho, MD
Department of Psychiatry, David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, CA, USA
Abstract
<p class="MsoPlainText" style="word-spacing: 1; line-height: 150%; margin-top: 0; margin-bottom: 0" align="left"><font face="HY중고딕" size="2">
Jeong

is an experience distinctive to those from a Korean heritage. Its definition is, as most things rooted deep within a culture, both simple and complex. In essence,
jeong

refers to the emotional and psychological bonds that join Koreans; it permeates all levels, dividing the world into different degrees of us/we versus them. The uniqueness of this phenomenon lies in its ubiquity and its source: the collective nature of Korean society. When this bond is broken, however, other culturally unique phenomena arise:
haan

and
hwabyung

.
Haan

is essentially the intense suppressed anger that arises from the violation of
jeong

. At times,
haan

can evolve to
hwabyung

or "anger syndrome," which includes many somatic elements. Therefore,
hwabyung

cannot rise without the initial presence of
jeong

and is considered a Korean culture-bound disorder. Those with borderline personality disorder (BPD), in contrast, seek relationships pathologically in "Western," individualistic societies where autonomy, independence, and privacy are highly valued. A comparative analysis of the socio-cultural dynamics of
hwabyung

, directly tied to Korea's
jeong

-based collective culture, and BPD, a mal-adaptation to a Western autonomy-emphasized culture, can provide insight into the nature of these respective societies and in developing treatment strategies for these contrasting disorders.


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Key words   <i>Jeong</i>;<i>Haan</i>;<i>Hwabyung</i>;Anger syn-drome;Borderline personality disorder.
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Treatment and Prognosis of Hwabyung2004 March;1(1)



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